Tamás Demeter1, Alexandra Kovács1, Katalin Károlyházi2, Melinda Pénzes3 Krisztina Márton1,
1 Department of General Dental Preclinical Practice, Faculty of Dentistry, Semmelweis University, Budapest
2 Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Semmelweis University, Budapest
3 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest
Introduction: The effect of smoking on saliva secretion has been investigated in several previous researches, which found controversial results.
Aims: Our objectives were to assess the minor and whole salivary flow rates, to estimate the prevalence of xerostomia and related dryness symptoms, and to examine the oral health status of smokers and non-smokers in different age groups of Hungarian patients.
Methods: In overall, 901 patients (age range: 18-92 years, mean age: 46.36 [SD=16.36] years, 41.7% male) were enrolled in the study. Measures included a questionnaire to assess subjective sicca symptoms. Unstimulated whole saliva flow rate (UWS) was measured by the spitting method, and palatal (PS) and labial (LS) minor salivary gland flow rates were collected by the Periotron method. Dental (Decayed, Missing, Filled-Tooth – DMF-T) and periodontal examination [periodontal probing depth, maximal community periodontal index (CPI) score, Löe-Silness plaque-index, calculus-index and Ainamo-Bay gingival bleeding index] were also carried out. χ2-test and independent samples t-test were applied to test associations by smoking status.
Results: Of smokers (35.9%; 43.4% male), 44.8% of males in the 30–39 year-old age group and 51.4% of females in the 20–29 year-old age group reported significantly higher xerostomia rates compared to non-smoker males (6.5%, p<0.001 and females (27.1%, p=0.018), respectively. LS in smoker females was significantly lower (2.06±1.3 µl/cm²/min) than in their non-smoker counterparts (2.99±2.4 µl/cm²/min, p=0.048). No significant differences were detected neither in the UWS nor in the DMF-T values. Increased plaque retention, significantly higher average probing depth, maximal CPI score, gingival bleeding index, and higher accumulation of calculus were also observed among smokers in different age groups.
Conclusions: Smoking might cause a significant destruction in the periodontal status and may also contribute to xerostomia or any other sicca symptoms, however, according to our findings, it does not influence the UWS.
Doctoral School: Clinical Medicine
Program: Dental Research
Supervisor: Krisztina Márton
E-mail address: email@example.com