PhD Scientific Days 2024

Budapest, 9-10 July 2024

Pathological and Oncological Sciences II.

Malignant transformation and long-term outcome of oral and laryngeal leukoplakia

Author(s)

Botond Bukovszky1, János Fodor2, Erika Tóth2, Zsuzsa S Kocsis2, Ferenc Oberna2, Örs Ferenczi2, Csaba Polgár2
1: Semmelweis University Faculty of Dentistry
2: National Institute of Oncology

Text of the abstract

Introduction
Oral or laryngeal leukoplakia has an increased risk for malignant transformation but the risk of the two anatomical sites has not been compared to each other yet.

Aims
To study the risk of malignant transformation of oral and laryngeal leukoplakia and to compare of the risk of the two anatomical sites.

Method
Clinical data of 253 patients with leukoplakia (oral = 221 or laryngeal = 32) enrolled from January 1996 to January 2022 were analyzed. One hundred and seventy underwent biopsy and 83 did not. The mean follow-up time was 148.8 months. Risk factors for the malignant transformation of leukoplakia were identified using Cox proportional hazard models.

Results
In the oral or laryngeal group, the rate of cancer was 21.7% and 50% (p = 0.002), respectively. The 10-year estimated malignant transformation was 15.1% and 42% (p < 0.0001), respectively. The laryngeal group had an increased risk of malignant transformation (p < 0.0001). The 5-year estimated survival with leukoplakia-associated cancer for the oral or laryngeal group was 40.9% and 61.1% (p = 0.337), respectively. Independent predictors of malignant transformation in the oral group were dysplasia and the grade of dysplasia of the leukoplakia, and in the laryngeal group, dysplasia had a significant impact. The malignant transformation rate was low for oral patients without biopsy or with no dysplasia, 3.9% and 5.1%, respectively. The malignant transformation occurred over 10 years.

Conclusion
Patients with dysplastic leukoplakia have an increased risk of malignant transformation, but the risk is higher with laryngeal than with oral leukoplakia. There is no significant difference between the groups regarding survival with leukoplakia-associated cancer. Oral patients with no dysplastic lesions have a low risk of malignant transformation. A complete excision and long-term follow up are suggested for high-risk patients to diagnose cancer in an early stage and to control late (over 10 years) malignant events.

Funding
Our study was not funded.